It is necessary to emphasize that call centers are a product of technological innovation and application (Ellis and Taylor 2006). Miozzo and Ramirez (2003) and Cave et al. (2002) effectively documented the qualitative advantages of information networking technology, which generates wider technological and organizational diffusion throughout the services sector. We have always maintained that the call centers have been defined fundamentally by this integration of telephonic and computer technologies(Taylor and Bain, 1999: 102), but the key innovation was the Automatic Call Distribution system, enabling calls to be routed to available operators, within (or between) call centers (Miozzo and Ramirez, 2003: 69).

The early call centers only consisted of telephones and telephone operators. It was in actuality a hotline supplying the enquiry and complains service. With the development of ICTS technique and the internet, call centers have become more popular in world’s corporations (Koening 1999). Modern call centers are based on the advanced phone system network and internet, which have been integrated with several purposes such as advertising and selling.

Service quality

Research on service quality started in 1970s. Many scholars argued that service quality can be measured on the bases of the level of customer satisfaction; it is a comparison between expectations and performance. Garvin (1984) measures quality by counting the incidence of internalfailures and “externalfailures. Lewis & Booms, 1983 argued that delivering quality service means conforming to customer expectations on a consistent basis. Parasuraman,Zeithaml&Berry (1988) defined service quality as the evaluation of the service process.

Berry (1985) divided the service quality into two types: process quality and result quality. It is shown in figure 2. Berry argued that the service quality is not only based on the result of service but also on the process of service.

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