In previous times, type 2 diabetes was only common among adults; however, in the past few days, clinical reports and epidemiologic evidence suggest that the frequency of type 2 diabetes among the youth is rapidly increasing. Statistics have indicated that from the year 2002 to 2005 more than 15000 youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes whereas 3600 youngsters were found of suffering from type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes was greater, in contrast, to type 2 diabetes among the white youngsters belonging to the age group of 10-19. On the other hand, the frequency of type 2 diabetes was greater in the Native Americans and Pacific/Asian Islanders.
Diabetes increases the risk of lower limb amputations, neuropathy, kidney disease, blindness, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. The consequences that may arise as a result of diabetes are dangerous because they cause irreversible changes in tissues and organs, which lead to disability or even death in patients.
Annually in the world complications of diabetes kills more than 4 million people. The main cause of complications is the defeat of the small vessels (capillary network) and peripheral nerves. Most small blood vessels are located in the retina, in the renal glomerulus, the lower extremities of the feet. Therefore, there is a terminology that denotes the localization of complications:
Diabetes mellitus, according to the WHO definition is a disease of the “endocrine system”, which indicates a state of “chronic high blood glucose (hyperglycemia)”, that can be developed as a result of many genetic, and other exogenous factors. Hyperglycemia may be caused by a deficiency of insulin – pancreatic hormone, or an excess of factors that counteract its activity.
The disease is accompanied by profound disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. According to modern concepts, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type 1, which develops in childhood and adolescence (mostly under 30) is a disease that develops against the backdrop of genetic (hereditary) predisposition when exposed to environmental factors.
Reasons for the first type of diabetes is that insulin production is reduced or completely discontinued due to the “destruction of the beta cells” under the action of the pancreas, for example, a viral infection, the presence of toxic agents in food, such as nitrosamines, stress, and other factors.
Diabetes Type II,
Diabetes Type II, from which mainly older people suffer, occurs four times more frequently than the first type of diabetes. In this case, the beta cells initially produce insulin in normal and even a large amount. However, its activity is reduced (usually due to the redundancy of the adipose tissue, which receptors have a reduced sensitivity to insulin). In the future, there may come a decrease in the formation of insulin.