Jamieson (1995) has described the core of a woman very specifically and which is also representative of the major reason behind the glass ceiling effect. She has used the term “Feminity-competency bind,” which means that when a woman is feminine she is considered to be incompetent and when she is competent she is termed to be manly and virile which is unacceptable to the so called civilized men of the society. Her book aims to state that women have recently begun to give up on trying to handle work stress and family stress and have begun abandoning professions and jobs to stay home with their children.

Berndt (1990) indicated some theoretical issues related to the labor force participation and also other labor supply decisions regarding individuals and households. The neoclassical model studies the labor supply in light of the theory of consumer behavior. The individual does need time off work that is leisure time which is important to motivate them to work. The increase in wages and other perks results in the increase in the hours worked and that will reduce leisure time as a result. Utility is maximized when the combination of goods and leisure increase simultaneously. Thus the income effect of labor supply turns out to be negative. Berndt shows both the sides of the coin as to the factors of participation in the labor force and the factors going against the participation in labor force.

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