Sample Essay

Several studies put forward that the rate of the automatic strain is more significant to bone formation than stationary loading or the extent of the strain. Bone uncovered to shaking or exercise respond better to more rapid stimuli. Bone cells that are exposed or left open to vibration stress over a broad range of frequencies from 5 to 100 Hz freed more nitric oxide (NO) at the maximum acceleration rate[1].

The increase in the amount of NO the signalling molecule in osteocytes related linearly to the velocity of fluid cut off pressure in the bone cell canaliculi. In a study conducted by Smith, he reports that this situation occurs during the appearance of several mechanosensitive genes like ALP, runx2, osteomodulin, parathyroid hormone receptor1 and osteoglycin. It also provides verification that the amount of tension or movement is more significant to building bone than the force that is required[2].

[1] Chris J. Snijders. Study of Lower Back Pain in Astronauts During Spaceflight (LBP-Muscle) (2007). http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/LBP-Muscle.html (Accessed July 30, 2010).

[2] Smith, Jeanette, “Long Periods in Space May Take Physiological, Psychological Toll Among Crew,” JAMA , vol. 263 (19 January 1990), pp. 347 and 352. “Spinal Problems May Ground Space Travelers,” The Black Letter (April 1994), p. 42.

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