Sample Essay

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Plesiochronous means that when a shift occurs in two signals the variation in them in very less and is controlled to not go over a particular limit. “For example, if two networks must interwork, their clocks may be derived from two different PRCs. Although these clocks are extremely accurate, there is a difference between one clock and the other. This is known as a plesiochronous difference.”(Synchronous Optical Network, 2007) Asynchronous signals are where the shifts do not happen at the same rate. These signals are less accurate because their difference when compared to each other is way higher. (Synchronous Optical Network, 2007)

“SONET defines a technology for carrying many signals of different capacities through a synchronous, flexible, optical hierarchy. This is accomplished by means of a byte-interleaved multiplexing scheme. Byte-interleaving simplifies multiplexing and offers end-to-end network management.” (Synchronous Optical Network, 2007) SONET multiplexing is complicated and takes many steps. First the base signal is started and it transports signals in a synchronous manner. 51.84 Mbps is the beginning speed at level 1. The first step in the SONET multiplexing process involves the generation of the lowest level or base signal. In SONET, this base signal is referred to as synchronous transport signal–level 1, or simply STS–1, which operates at 51.84 Mbps. (Synchronous Optical Network, 2007)

The difference between SONET and SDH is not a big one. In the SDH the STS-1 is not the first level. The first level is the Synchronous Transport Mode 1 and is equal to the third SONET level. In SDH overhead bytes are a little different. (SONET FAQ, 1998) “A common misconception is that STM-Ns are formed by multiplexing STM-1s.  STM-1s, STM-4s and STM-16s that terminate on a network node are broken down to recover the VCs which they contain.  The outbound STM-Ns are then reconstructed with new overheads.” (SONET FAQ, 1998)

“SONET was developed in the United States through ANSI T1X1.5 committee. ANSI work commenced in 1985 with the CCITT (now ITU) initiating a standardization effort in 1986. The US wanted a data rate close to 50Mbps. But the Europeans wanted the data rate to be around 150 Mbps. A compromise was reached and the US data rates were made subset of ITU specification, known formally as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).”(Prakash) Basically the SONET and SDH are quite similar aside from a few differences. The SONET is used in America and Canada and the rest of the world uses SDH. After the compromise the SDH is used as proper protocol.

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