So the question that these findings eventually lead us to is what does affect the level of criminality in an individual is it genetics or the environment. Years of research into the subject has led several prominent scientific minds to believe that it is through a combination of both, through genetics and environmental factors that criminality is born.
This has been discussed in detail by Michael Rutter in his book; he says that to consider that the action of one gene can decide the entire makeup of an individual is a far too simple explanation in any disorder. He says that it is important to give consideration to the genes in the background as well as the parts of the gene which are non-coding, i.e. do not produce proteins. What this means is that the expression of genes is not only dependant on the characteristic of that gene but how factors in the environment can affect how and when such a gene expresses itself. Even the expression itself can be influenced by factors which decide the lasting effects it has on the individual and those around him (Rutter, 2007 178-196).
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