Sample Essay

‘Happiness is the ultimate end of every man and can only attain it when s/he acts within the frame of reason, the distinguishing feature of the traditional virtues’ (Aristotle, 2001). The most important thing is that Aristotle accepts the fact that there is a objective reason why a human being acts morally.Linking Aristotle to Kantian Moral Theory rationality determines right or wrong.

His famous Summum Bonum derives from this. Law or duty defines what is to be regarded as good or what is to be regarded as bad. His maxims are widely quoted especially that one should do a duty for duty’s sake and that one should only act in manner that can be universally accepted or desired. Most importantly is that Summum Bonum is the Highest Good or end. It is equivalent to pleasure or happiness. Note the relationship of Aristotle’s happiness and this one of Kant. It is important to note that one of the arguments on the existence of God is based on Kantian Moral Argument as explicated above. This clearly, settles for a supreme authority.

For Hobbes the Leviathan is the determinant of good or wrong. Everything is left to the judgment of the ruler. S/he uses his kingship to define morality.

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