Sample Essay

There are four factors that influence on consumer behavior which point as the following description.

  • Cultural factors

Cultural factors include three aspects which are culture, subculture and social class. Kotler (2003) determined culture as the fundamental determinant of a person’s behavior and wants. Meanwhile, culture is mainly composed of institutions that define norms, ideas that form knowledge; develop values and beliefs, and materials that are artifacts created because they are physically or psychologically useful to individual survival (Williams 1981). According to Kotler (2003) defined subcultures which provide more specific identification and socialization for their members. Nationalities, religions, racial groups and geographic regions are included in subcultures. The social class also influence on consumer’s behaviour.

It reflects not only income but also occupation, education and area of residence. Social mobility is a very important factor as it allows individuals to consider belonging to their inspirational group and thus to improve their situation (Kotler 2003). According to service organization as a hostel, it is important to understand culture differences because it can effect on customers evaluate and use services (Wilson et al. 2008).

  • Social factors

Kotler (2003) stated that Social factors are reference groups, family and role of status. Doyle and Stern (2006) mentioned that reference groups are people with whom they interact such as co-workers, friends or professional groups. Most people want to “fit in”, so reference groups create pressures for conformity. Moreover, family is the most important consumer buying organisation in society, and family members constitute the most influential primary reference groups (Doyle and Stern 2006).

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