Sample Essay

“Consumer behavior is the process individuals or groups go through to select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their need and desires” (Solomon et al. 2006 p.136).

Figure 3: Five stage model of the buying process

Source: Jobber 2001 p.63

From the model as shown above, the author indicated that the consumer buying process refers to similar steps which can be divided into 5 stages actually, but not all decision process will lead to the purchase. It will depend on the situation and other factors. The model of the buying decision process in figure2 is mostly relevant to complex decision making with high involvement for new purchases. It also happen when consumers want to buy expensive and unusual products in contrast, if consumers purchase low value products or service, they may skip some steps.

There are 5 stages of buyer’s decision process which are a following description:

  1. Need recognition

Problem recognition is “the process that occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his or her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state; this recognition initiates the decision making process” (Solomon et al. 2006 p.139). Also, Hawkins et al (1998) mentioned that the buying process starts when consumer recognize a problem or need first as well as the need can be stimulated by internal or external factors.

  1. Information search

Solomon et al (2006) defined information search which is “the step of decision making process in which the consumer checks his/her memory and surveys the environment to identify what option are out there that might solve his problem”. This information search may be internal search such as memories or experience from previous service and external search if need more information before purchase such as reading about possible product or service and visiting shop (Blythe 2006 p.105). Thanks to a high media and technologies nowadays, consumers can look for more information through the internet, television and radio. However, a personal source which refers to family, friends, neighbour and acquaintances also word of mouth is the most effective the influence buying decision (Kotler 2003).

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