Rationalism and Enlightenment Essay
When this movement gained popularity in the 17th century, rationalism was born. The Age of Reason is the common name for this era. The most well-known realist philosophers included those who first proposed incorporating mathematical formulae into philosophy, such as Descartes, Leibniz, and Spinoza. According to proponents of the notion of realism, intelligent and inferential reasoning is where knowledge and justification first appear. They also contend that one can discover the truth about anything by using intuition as opposed to sensuous interactions or any information based on religious convictions. On the other hand, the Enlightenment age started a century after the start of realism.
The 18th century is known as the “Age of Enlightenment.” The well-known personalities who supported this theory were primarily of French descent, including Voltaire and other professors who made only minor contributions. They contend that knowledge and action are strongly related. Thus, the comparison and contrast between rationalism and enlightenment is the main goal of this debate.
The truth, according to rationalists, can only be comprehended logically. They fiercely disagree with empiricists who contend that knowledge cannot be acquired apart from experience. Despite being a broad topic, most rationalists’ theories rest on a few fundamental ideas. These ideas encompass intuition, intrinsic wisdom, and the necessity of reason.
This school of thinking first emerged in the early 17th Century, as previously mentioned. This school of thinking holds that the truth can only be inferred by reason and cannot simply be experienced through the senses. The truth, according to rationalists, can only be comprehended logically.
They fiercely disagree with empiricists who contend that knowledge cannot be acquired apart from experience. Despite being a broad topic, most rationalists’ theories rest on a few fundamental ideas.
These ideas encompass intuition, intrinsic wisdom, and the necessity of reason. The idea of intuition indicates that some facts regarding a certain subject area can be known by intuition alone.
According to intrinsic knowledge, our reasoning nature makes us aware of some facts. In contrast to intuition, which asserts that knowledge is a component of our inherent understanding, rationalists who advance this idea distinguish it from intuition.
Rationalists who assert that reason is unavoidable contend that experience is inferior to reason and that experience cannot provide what reasoning allows humans to comprehend.
The ‘Age of Enlightenment,’ as this philosophical movement is commonly known, began in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This school of thought was founded primarily on individualism, skepticism, and reason. They questioned conventional beliefs on religion, superstition, paranormal events, and bigotry.
This school of thought is strongly linked to the scientific revolution since its adherents used science to understand the world around them. The teachings of Isaac Newton, Descartes, and Spinoza served as inspiration for the movement, which had its start in Europe. It subsequently expanded to other countries, including the US, where people like Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine were drawn to it.
Reason was one of the main tenets of enlightenment. The movement’s supporters categorically dismissed supernatural events as mere superstition. They held the opinion that there was a specific reason why events in the natural world occurred. In actuality, the majority of Enlightenment philosophers rejected religion.
The deism movement was created by non-atheists who combined Christianity with scientific rationality. Members of this movement believed that although God exists, he permits the world to operate according to natural law.
Skepticism was another important enlightenment idea. Skepticism suggested having a pessimistic attitude about anything that lacked a convincing rational justification, such as religious doctrine, a structured church, or even things that were considered the essence of reality.
Individualism was this school of thought’s additional basic principle. Individualism suggests that man is born with a specific set of fundamental liberties and rights. They held that individuals who believed in God were given these two privileges by nature or by God. The majority of their teachings placed a strong emphasis on the dignity and equality of all people. This line of thinking appears to be where the idea of human rights first emerged.