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Finger Printing

Finger printing is a technique which is used for the identification of a particular person by the help of unique units of DNA. Every person has a unique pattern of fingers print; it is a better way to identify people. It has been observed that out of 30 percent human DNA does not take code from protein and are presented in genome in repeated arrangement.

The length of DNA units is different in each person. Each unit consists of 40 bases (base units). This different size of DNA units is also transferred into new generation. The process of separate different arrangements of DNA product in all human beings is called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RELPs). This is pronounced as Riff-lips different person has different Riff-Lips. To obtain fingerprint from DNA is known as DNA finger printing method.

For finger printing the DNA of blood cell or any other cell is obtained. Then the DNA is cut into fragments with the help of restriction enzyme. After that, by the help of the process of electrophoresis(jelly like substance). The DNA fragments are separated according to their sizes. At this stage, DNA bonds are not visible. Heat is provided to them due to which double strand DNA separated. After that, their copy is transferred on nylon membrane by the help of x-rays. In this way, fingerprints of the person are obtained.

Advantages

  • By this technique, relationship of a person with his or her parents can be determined.
  • It is used for the identification of the criminal. The hair, nail, blood, semen of the criminal at crime scene can help for the identification of the criminal.
  • This is also used to control the abnormal property or disease by the selection of accurate medicine. The hereditary disease of the developing baby inside mother body can be diagnosed by this technique.
  • It can be used to identify unidentified dead bodies.

Disadvantages

  • It can be misleading some time. As the hair found at a criminal scene does not always belong to the criminal.
  • DNA fingerprinting is expensive is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is practiced only when it is really necessary.

DNA Finger Printing is indeed an extraordinary technique of biotechnology. It is very beneficial as well as expensive.  It is used to map out the sequence certain genes present in a DNA chain of a particular person. However, this technique is not always accurate it may mislead the observer.

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